Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for colorectal adenoma and cancer

Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for colorectal adenoma and cancer

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Omega-3 fatty acids have not been shown to prevent cancer. Omega-3 fatty acids are obtained from fish oil. They have been used to protect against cardiovascular events such as heart attack. Studies have shown that omega-3 fatty acids can be taken up by the fatty deposits that line the arteries, thereby improving the stability of those deposits.

They do not seem to affect blood clotting. Omega-3 fatty acids may also reduce inflammation by decreasing some of the signals that cells send to each other. It is thought that patients with colitis, asthma, cystic fibrosis and those before surgery may benefit from this reduced inflammatory effect. Omega-3 fatty acid supplements have been shown to be absorbed by the skin and protect it from ultra-violet radiation damage. Omega-3 fatty acids should not be confused with omega-6 fatty acids, such as those found in evening primrose oil and borage oilwhich have different effects in the body.

A type of polyunsaturated fatty acid PUFA derived mainly from fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids are used as a dietary supplement for depression, to lower cholesterol, and to reduce the risk of heart attack. Data on omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for cancer prevention are inconclusive. Increasing the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids has been shown to increase lipid peroxidation. Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids, therefore, may increase oxidative stress on the body.

Besides reducing serum antioxidant levels, little is known about how this added oxidative stress affects the body. Skip to main content. Developing Your Personal Care Plan.

Membership Program. About Mind-Body Therapies. How It Works. Findings from studies of omega-3 supplementation for cancer prevention are inconclusive. Purported Uses.

metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for colorectal adenoma and cancer

To treat asthma A review of published trials shows no effect of omega-3 on asthma. To treat fatty deposits on the inside of arteries atherosclerosis Studies have shown that omega-3 can increase the stability of these deposits, which may make them less dangerous. To prevent cancer Data on benefits of omega-3 for cancer prevention are not definitive. To protect against cardiovascular disease Studies have shown that omega-3 can reduce the frequency and severity of cardiovascular events such as heart attacks.

To improve the symptoms of colitis Studies have shown that omega-3 may improve the symptoms associated with colitis.Esophageal cancer is cancer arising from the esophagus —the food pipe that runs between the throat and the stomach.

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The two main sub-types of the disease are esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma often abbreviated to ESCC[9] which is more common in the developing worldand esophageal adenocarcinoma EACwhich is more common in the developed world. The disease is diagnosed by biopsy done by an endoscope a fiberoptic camera.

As ofesophageal cancer was the eighth-most common cancer globally withnew cases during the year. It caused aboutdeaths that year, up fromin The first and the most common symptom is usually difficulty in swallowingwhich is often experienced first with solid foods and later with softer foods and liquids. The pain can frequently be severe, worsening when food of any sort is swallowed. Another sign may be an unusually husky, raspy, or hoarse-sounding cough, a result of the tumor affecting the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

The presence of the tumor may disrupt the normal contractions of the esophagus when swallowing. This can lead to nausea and vomitingregurgitation of food and coughing. Compression of local structures occurs in advanced disease, leading to such problems as upper airway obstruction and superior vena cava syndrome.

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Hypercalcemia excess calcium in the blood may occur. If the cancer has spread elsewhere, symptoms related to metastatic disease may appear. Common sites of spread include nearby lymph nodesthe liverlungs and bone.

Lung metastasis can cause, among other symptoms, impaired breathing due to excess fluid around the lungs pleural effusionand dyspnea the feelings often associated with impaired breathing. The two main types i. The two major risk factors for esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma are tobacco smoking or chewing and alcohol.

Physical trauma may increase the risk. Male predominance is particularly strong in this type of esophageal cancer, which occurs about 7 to 10 times more frequently in men. The long-term erosive effects of acid reflux an extremely common condition, also known as gastroesophageal reflux disease or GERD have been strongly linked to this type of cancer.

Being obese or overweight both appear to be associated with increased risk.

Colorectal cancer

Helicobacter pylori infection a common occurrence thought to have affected over half of the world's population is not a risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma and actually appears to be protective.Sincethe Micronutrient Information Center has been your source for evidence-based information on the roles of nutrients and dietary factors in health and disease.

We thank our supporters. Subscribe to our Research Newsletter. Donate to the MIC. For media contact information. Skip to main content.

MET MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase [ (human)]

Toggle menu Go to search page. Search Field. Achlorhydria the absence of hydrochloric acid in gastric juice. Acidic having a pH of less than 7.

Acne vulgaris a condition of the skin characterized by the presence of comedones. Acrodermatitis enteropathica a rare, inherited disorder of impaired zinc absorption. Actinic lentigines hyperpigmented patches that occur in sun-exposed skin; also known as liver spots or age spots. Acute having a short and relatively severe course. Acute-phase reactant protein also called acute-phase protein ; plasma protein that is synthesized by the liver during acute inflammation.

Action potential the electrochemical signal transmitted in the cell membrane of a neuron or muscle cell. Also called nerve impulse. Adipose tissue specialized connective tissue that functions to store body fat as triglycerides. Adjunct therapy a treatment or therapy used in addition to another, not alone.

Adrenal glands a pair of small glands, located above the kidneys, consisting of an outer cortex and inner medulla. The adrenal cortex secretes cortisone-related hormones and the adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine adrenaline and norepinephrine noradrenaline. Aglycone the nonsugar component of a glycoside. Cleavage of the glycosidic bond of a glycoside results in the formation of a sugar and an aglycone. AI adequate intake.

metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for colorectal adenoma and cancer

Established by the Food and Nutrition Board of the US Institute of Medicine, the AI is a recommended intake value based on observed or experimentally determined estimates of nutrient intake by a group of healthy people that are assumed to be adequate.

AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome.Cancer is a disease caused by genetic changes leading to uncontrolled cell growth and tumor formation. The basic cause of sporadic non-familial cancers is DNA damage [ citation needed ] and genomic instability.

The term " environmental ", as used by cancer researchers, refers to everything outside the body that interacts with humans. Many molecular and cellular changes involved in the development of cancer accumulate during the aging process and eventually manifest as cancer. Although there are over 50 identifiable hereditary forms of cancer, less than 0. Hereditary cancers are primarily caused by an inherited genetic defect.

A cancer syndrome or family cancer syndrome is a genetic disorder in which inherited genetic mutations in one or more genes predisposes the affected individuals to the development of cancers and may also cause the early onset of these cancers. Although cancer syndromes exhibit an increased risk of cancer, the risk varies. For some of these diseases, cancer is not the primary feature and is a rare consequence. Many of the cancer syndrome cases are caused by mutations in tumor suppressor genes that regulate cell growth.

Other common mutations alter the function of DNA repair genesoncogenes and genes involved in the production of blood vessels. Gene mutations are classified as germline or somatic depending on the cell type where they appear germline cells include the egg and the sperm and somatic cells are those forming the body.

The germline mutations are carried through generations and increase the risk of cancer. Particular substances, known as carcinogenshave been linked to specific types of cancer. Common examples of non-radioactive carcinogens are inhaled asbestos, certain dioxins, and tobacco smoke. Although the public generally associates carcinogenicity with synthetic chemicals, it is equally likely to arise in both natural and synthetic substances.

Electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes are handheld electronic devices that simulate the feeling of tobacco smoking. Daily long-term use of high voltage 5.

metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for colorectal adenoma and cancer

Some substances cause cancer primarily through their physical, rather than chemical, effects on cells. Many different lifestyle factors contribute to increasing cancer risk. Alcohol is an example of a chemical carcinogen.

The World Health Organization has classified alcohol as a Group 1 carcinogen. Some specific foods have been linked to specific cancers. Studies have shown that individuals that eat red or processed meat have a higher risk of developing breast cancer, prostate cancer, and pancreatic cancer. Aflatoxin B1a frequent food contaminate, is associated with liver cancer.

Betel nut chewing has been shown to cause oral cancers. Red and processed meat consumption has been linked to stomach and colorectal cancer. The relationship between diet and the development of particular cancers may partly explain differences in cancer incidence in different countries. For example, gastric cancer is more common in Japan due to the frequency of high-salt diets and colon cancer is more common in the United States due to the increased intake of processed and red meats. There is an association between obesity and colon cancer, post-menopausal breast cancer, endometrial cancer, kidney cancer, and esophageal cancer.

Physical inactivity is believed to contribute to cancer risk not only through its effect on body weight but also through negative effects on immune system and endocrine system. Some hormones play a role in the development of cancer by promoting cell proliferation.Colorectal cancer CRCalso known as bowel cancercolon canceror rectal canceris the development of cancer from the colon or rectum parts of the large intestine.

Most colorectal cancers are due to old age and lifestyle factors, with only a small number of cases due to underlying genetic disorders. Bowel cancer may be diagnosed by obtaining a sample of the colon during a sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs decrease the risk. Treatments used for colorectal cancer may include some combination of surgery, radiation therapychemotherapy and targeted therapy. The signs and symptoms of colorectal cancer depend on the location of the tumor in the boweland whether it has spread elsewhere in the body metastasis.

The classic warning signs include: worsening constipationblood in the stool, decrease in stool caliber thicknessloss of appetite, loss of weight, and nausea or vomiting in someone over 50 years old. Rectal bleeding or anemia are high-risk symptoms in people over the age of People with inflammatory bowel disease ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are at increased risk of colon cancer.

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A number of genetic syndromes are also associated with higher rates of colorectal cancer. Colectomy, removal of the colon, may not suffice as a preventative measure because of the high risk of rectal cancer if the rectum remains. Most deaths due to colon cancer are associated with metastatic disease. A gene that appears to contribute to the potential for metastatic disease, metastasis associated in colon cancer 1 MACC1has been isolated. This gene is associated with the proliferation, invasion and scattering of colon cancer cells in cell culture, and tumor growth and metastasis in mice.

MACC1 may be a potential target for cancer intervention, but this possibility needs to be confirmed with clinical studies. Epigenetic factors, such as abnormal DNA methylation of tumor suppressor promoters, play a role in the development of colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer is a disease originating from the epithelial cells lining the colon or rectum of the gastrointestinal tractmost frequently as a result of mutations in the Wnt signaling pathway that increase signaling activity.

The mutations can be inherited or acquiredand most probably occur in the intestinal crypt stem cell. These genes are normally important for stem cell renewal and differentiation, but when inappropriately expressed at high levels, they can cause cancer. Beyond the defects in the Wnt signaling pathwayother mutations must occur for the cell to become cancerous. The p53 protein, produced by the TP53 gene, normally monitors cell division and induces their programmed death if they have Wnt pathway defects.

Eventually, a cell line acquires a mutation in the TP53 gene and transforms the tissue from a benign epithelial tumor into an invasive epithelial cell cancer. Sometimes the gene encoding p53 is not mutated, but another protective protein named BAX is mutated instead. For example, genes encoding the proteins KRASRAFand PI3Kwhich normally stimulate the cell to divide in response to growth factors, can acquire mutations that result in over-activation of cell proliferation.

metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for colorectal adenoma and cancer

The chronological order of mutations is sometimes important. If a previous APC mutation occurred, a primary KRAS mutation often progresses to cancer rather than a self-limiting hyperplastic or borderline lesion. Comprehensive, genome-scale analysis has revealed that colorectal carcinomas can be categorized into hypermutated and non-hypermutated tumor types.

IGF1 insulin like growth factor 1 [ (human)]

Mismatch repair MMR deficient tumours are characterized by a relatively high amount of poly-nucleotide tandem repeats. Lynch syndrome. The polyp to cancer progression sequence is the classical model of colorectal cancer pathogenesis. The term "field cancerization" was first used in to describe an area or "field" of epithelium that has been preconditioned by what were largely unknown processes at the time to predispose it towards development of cancer.

Field defects are important in progression to colon cancer. However, as pointed out by Rubin, "The vast majority of studies in cancer research has been done on well-defined tumors in vivoor on discrete neoplastic foci in vitro. Likewise, epigenetic alterations present in tumors may have occurred in pre-neoplastic field defects.

An expanded view of field effect has been termed "etiologic field effect", which encompasses not only molecular and pathologic changes in pre-neoplastic cells but also influences of exogenous environmental factors and molecular changes in the local microenvironment on neoplastic evolution from tumor initiation to death.

Epigenetic alterations are much more frequent in colon cancer than genetic mutational alterations. As described by Vogelstein et al. The oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes are well studied and are described above under Pathogenesis. In addition to epigenetic alteration of expression of miRNAs, other common types of epigenetic alterations in cancers that change gene expression levels include direct hypermethylation or hypomethylation of CpG islands of protein-encoding genes and alterations in histones and chromosomal architecture that influence gene expression.Read regular words Reception T1 6.

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Esophageal cancer

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